The Leather Trade

The true cost to animals and humans


The 2013 tragedy of Rana Plaza was a defining moment in the push for ethical standards in fashion. Over a thousand people lost their lives when the eight-story building collapsed1. In the aftermath of the horrific incident, the eyes of the fashion world turned to the conditions of garment workers, with major brands compelled to introduce new standards to ensure a safe and healthy fashion industry in Bangladesh2

While this immediate movement produced some positive outcomes for people 3, in the same time period, little has been done for animals, namely the widespread abuse of cattle in the Bangladeshi fashion industry4

So why is it important to consider human rights and animal welfare together? 

Cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, and even calves and lambs supply almost all the leather being used in today’s fashion industry. In fact, every year 355 million cattle, 475 million goats, and 531 million sheep are slaughtered.

Animals killed for leather annually infographic

Global farming practices can involve serious animal welfare issues throughout an animal’s life from birth to slaughter, including often violent and brutal treatment, most of which is legal and standard practice.     

Drawing on criminal psychology research, recent studies in the fashion industry have brought to light the links between animal violence and human welfare5. As Ingrid Molderez of the Research Centre for Economics and Corporate Sustainability in Brussels notes, as long as there is violence to animals, there will be violence to humans6

To illustrate this point, we can look to Hazaribagh, the centre of the Bangladesh leather tanning industry. A 2013 study labelled the city the world’s 5th most polluted location7, while also home to a litany of human rights abuses for the sake of fashion. 

In 2012, Human Rights Watch uncovered workers, including children as young as 7, forced to work 10 hour days, often without even the most basic protection8. The World Health Organisation estimates 90% of workers in Hazaribagh will die before reaching 509. With nowhere near enough inspectors to audit tannery facilities in Hazaribagh, it became an enforcement-free zone for human rights and environmental abuses10

Sheep flock

Now consider India where cattle slaughter is illegal for cultural and religious reasons in all but two states. This results in a huge surplus of cattle, including overused and abused dairy animals that cannot be handled by the slaughterhouses11. Coupled with this is the fact in Bangladesh, India has a neighbouring country with a leather tanning industry second only to clothes manufacturing 12

Because of this, cattle are moved across the Indian-Bangladeshi border, resulting in high concern for India’s cattle during transportation. On foot and without rest, water, food or heat protection, cows and buffaloes are forced to travel hundreds of kilometres. They’re beaten, their tails are broken deliberately, and tobacco and chilli peppers are rubbed into their eyes to keep them moving or to force them to stand when they’ve collapsed. Their hooves are often bleeding and worn down to stumps. On trucks and trains, they’re unable to avoid trampling each other and gouging one another with their horns13.

The suffering for these animals doesn’t end at the border. Once on Bangladeshi soil, they’re crammed into trucks enroute to Dhaka14. Inside slaughterhouses and on the streets, cows have their legs tied before they’re slaughtered in front of other living cows15. Some are still kicking as they’re skinned for their hide16, to be turned into the leather we no longer associate with a living, breathing being. And how could we? It’s the dangerous and highly polluting chemical treatment at the tanneries in Hazaribagh that transforms leather from the raw hide, a substance which would naturally decay in a matter of days, into the  fashion item that sits still in our wardrobes for decades. 


So what can we learn from the case of leather production? That the fashion industry’s impact on animals and people is connected along the journey from raw material to end user. 

As demonstrated by the India-Bangladesh cattle trade, leather production is particularly problematic when it comes to traceability. It is by calling for greater transparency, that both human rights and animal welfare issues associated with leather production can be addressed. 

By asking brands to recognise and address the animal welfare issues within their supply chains, we can have positive flow-on effects that will help create a more ethical and sustainable future for animals, workers, consumers and brands.

Posted on July 8, 2019 by Ranny Rustam; FOUR PAWS Australia Research Consultant


1 International Labour Organization, ‘The Rana Plaza accident and its aftermath’. November 2017, viewed on 31 May 2019,
2 K McVeigh, ‘Major US names missing as retailers sign deal to improve Bangladesh safety’, The Guardian. July 2013, viewed on 27 May 2019,
3 Accord on Fire and Safety Building in Bangladesh, ‘Achievements 2013 Accord’. July 2018, viewed 29 May 2019, 

4 S A Rahman, ‘Cow smuggling…it’s how Bangladesh gets its beef’. January 2013, viewed on 27 May 2019,
5 Ingrid Molderez, Perrine De Landtsheer, “Sustainable Fashion and Animal Welfare: Non-Violence as a Business Strategy” in
Business, Ethics and Peace. Published online: 21 Sep 2015; 351-370.DOI:
6 Molderez and Landtsheer 2015, p. 351
7 Hazaribagh named 5th most polluted place on earth’, Dhaka Tribune. November 2013, viewed 27 May 2019,
8 Human Rights Watch, ‘Toxic tanneries: the health repercussions of Bangladesh’s Hazaribagh leather’. October 2012, viewed 27 May 2019,
9 S Boseley, ‘Child labourers exposed to toxic chemicals dying before 50’, 
The Guardian. March 2017, viewed 29 May 2019,
10 Human Rights Watch 2012, p. 11
11 J Bhattacharjee, ‘India-Bangladesh border management: the challenge of cattle smuggling’, 
Meghalaya Times
viewed 14 December 2018
12 R Ahamad, ‘Tannery workers’ minimum wages not implemented’, 
New Age Bangladesh. September 2018, viewed 31 May 2019,
13 Plannthin D-K, ‘Animal ethics and welfare in the fashion and lifestyle industries’, in Green Fashion: 
Environmental Footprints and Eco-design of Products and Processes, S.S. Muthu and M.A. Gardetti (eds.), Springer Science and Business Media, Singapore, 2016, p. 84, 85
14 AR Khan, ‘This Eid, be kind to your cow’, 
Dhaka Tribune, August 2017, viewed 14 December 2018,
15 J Duncan, ‘Leona Lewis exposes atrocities of Bangladeshi leather industry’s animal cruelty’, 
EcoSalon, December 2015, viewed 14 December 2018, PETA, ‘Hell for Animals and Children for Leather in Bangladesh Exposed’, The Mary T. and Frank L. Hoffman Family Foundation, 2015, viewed 21 December 2018,
16 J Duncan, ‘Leona Lewis exposes atrocities of Bangladeshi leather industry’s animal cruelty’, 
EcoSalon, December 2015, viewed 14 December 2018,